Gorillaz have returned to the public consciousness with a bang in the past couple weeks. After announcing their own Demon Dayz festival in the U.K. (set to feature all the artists included on their upcoming album Humanz), the Damon Albarn and Jamie Hewlett-masterminded animated group released four new top-notch tracks from the new album last week, complete with animated visuals. Then, after announcing their first North American show in years at Festival d’été de Québec in Quebec City this summer, the group sent shockwaves through social media when they were announced as a headliner for this summer’s Outside Lands alongside The Who and Metallica. Now, they have their own mixed reality app for fans to get a glimpse inside the weird and wonderful universe of the Gorillaz for the very first time.According to a press release, “the Gorillaz App will allow fans to immerse themselves in the world of Gorillaz and join Murdoc, 2D, Russel and Noodle at home in the Gorillaz House.”To celebrate the release of the new album, fans will be invited – via the app – to the Humanz House Party, an exclusive worldwide listening event which will allow fans to hear the new album in full for the first time. The Humanz House Party will be the largest ever geo specific listening experience bringing people together across 500 locations, from Tokyo to Santiago.Developed by Gorillaz and B-Reel with support from Deutsche Telekom, the fully immersive mixed-reality app is a unique blend of real world, AR, VR and 360 environments, using the technology in a narrative context for the very first time.Gorillaz will headline the recently announced, sold-out Demon Dayz Festival at Dreamland Margate on June 10th. Full details of dates scheduled for later in the year, will be announced soon.More dates to be announced?! Yes, thank you universe.Download the app on both Apple and Android mobile devices here.
On Saturday night, Ben Harper and the Innocent Criminals took to New Orleans for a performance at the Orpheum Theatre. The show, coinciding with the first day of Jazz Fest, was a quick stop for the band as they continue their Southern tour in support of their latest album, Call It What It Is. The Jazz Fest After Show was a smashing success, with Harper and his band clearly energized by the astounding musicians and adoring music lovers flocking to the Crescent City this past weekend to kick off Jazz Fest proper. You can check out photos of Ben Harper’s show below, courtesy of Adam McCullough. Load remaining images
[Photo: Ojeda Photography]Setlist: Umphrey’s McGee | Riverside Theater | Milwaukee, WI | 3/30/2017Set One: October Rain, Phil’s Farm, No Diablo, Glory, 2×2, North Route, Blue Echo, Booth LoveSet Two: Der Bluten Kat, In the Black, Hurt Bird Bath, Upward, Hurt Bird Bath, FF, Utopian Fir, Der Bluten KatEncore: Attachments On March 30th of this year, Umphrey’s McGee kicked off their three-night run at the Riverside Theater in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Such runs at the Milwaukee venue are common for Umphrey’s, though normally reserved for the end of the October to coincide with Halloween. As such, the Thursday night show and the subsequent performances on Friday and Saturday were something special. Today, Umphrey’s McGee has released pro-shot video of “2×2” from its Thursday night show at the Riverside Theater, cluing in fans who weren’t able to make it to the show to what exactly they missed out on.Umphrey’s McGee Welcomes Marcus King For “Can’t You Hear Me Knockin” In Augusta [Full Audio]Coming out “Glory” during the first set, Umphrey’s slowly meandered into “2×2,” with the group breaking into a cascading and euphoric introduction for the number. Alternatingly lyric and heavy, the song works through the bulk of the song before using it as a major jam vehicle. In particular, guitarist Brendan Bayliss shreds through the number, featuring particularly tight fretwork on his end, before the song drops into its more held-back though still meticulous jam portion. Slowly building in intensity to close out the song, “2×2” eventually makes a triumphant resolve, this time classified by more soaring guitar work by Bayliss. You can check out the video below, as well as check out Live For Live Music’s recap of as well as photos from Umphrey’s McGee’s past Riverside Theater run, courtesy of photographer and reviewer Daniel Ojeda (Thursday night, Friday night, and Saturday night).
Suwannee Hulaween is officially returning to the beloved Spirit of the Suwannee Music Park in Live Oak, Florida on October 27-29, 2017. The highly-anticipated event has released the official 2017 lineup with more than 60 artists across 5 stages, including three nights of The String Cheese Incident, Bassnectar, Ween, GRiZ, Run The Jewels, Nick Murphy (Chet Faker), RL Grime, Portugal. The Man, Nathaniel Rateliff & The Night Sweats, The Disco Biscuits, Claude VonStroke, Vince Staples, Greensky Bluegrass, Marian Hill, Kamasi Washington, Lettuce, and many more.The main event’s diverse lineup continues with Beats Antique, Benevento / Russo Duo, FKJ, Moon Taxi, Stick Figure, Charles Bradley & His Extraordinaires, Manic Focus, Here Come The Mummies, Spafford, TAUK, Dumpstaphunk, The Nth Power “Wake up & Live Bob Marley Tribute”, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, The Russ Liquid Test, Marco Benevento, Aqueous, Tank And The Bangas, Lemon City Trio, Heather Gillis Band, and so many more.The 2017 festival will also feature a fully programmed Thursday pre-party on October 26 at Spirit Lake with musical offerings from the likes of Joe Russo’s Almost Dead, Greensky Bluegrass, Lettuce, Liquid Stranger, The Devil Makes Three, EOTO & Friends, Zach Deputy, Kyle Hollingsworth Band, and more.Celebrating its fifth year, Suwannee Hulaween will offer a wide-reaching exposé of live and electronic music’s finest to soundtrack a fully immersive creative journey. The String Cheese Incident will remain at the helm of Hulaween, lending their creative vision and experiences touring as one of the world’s most sought after Jam acts to help shape the iconic look and feel of their flagship festival.Set in the midst of 800-acres of Spanish moss-draped oak and cypress along the black Suwannee River and complete with the largest bat house in the southeast U.S, Spirit of the Suwannee Music Park is one of the most beautiful live music venues in the country. The park also offers guest comforts including a general store, full-service restaurant, free showers, indoor bathrooms and water stations.Believe us when we say you don’t want to miss Suwannee Hulaween. For more information, please visit their website.Suwannee Hulaween 2017 Lineup:The String Cheese Incident (Three Nights)BassnectarWeenGRiZRun The JewelsNick Murphy (Chet Faker)RL GrimePortugal. The ManNathaniel Rateliff & The Night SweatsThe Disco BiscuitsClaude VonStrokeVince StaplesGreensky BluegrassMarian HillKamasi WashingtonLettuceBeats AntiqueBenevento / Russo DuoFKJMoon TaxiStick FigureCharles Bradley & His ExtraordinairesBig WildThe Polish AmbassadorKeys N KratesDestructoShiba SanManic FocusHere Come The MummiesTOKiMONSTAFuture RockSpaffordJacob BanksSpace JesusTAUKTank and the BangasThe Jerry Douglas BandDumpstaphunkCrywolfPoolsideThe Nth Power “Wake up & Live Bob Marley Tribute”Dirty Dozen Brass BandThe Russ Liquid TestBig SomethingPhantomsMichal MenertSon LittleMarco BeneventoJon Stickley TrioMagic City HippiesAqueousAcoustic SyndicateShak NastiThe Galbraith GroupKing BabyDisplaceHeather Gillis BandCadillac JonesThe ResolversLemon City TrioAnd More To Be Announced!Official Pre-Party Lineup on 10.26.2017Joe Russo’s Almost DeadGreensky BluegrassLiquid StrangerThe Devil Makes ThreeLettuceEOTO & FriendsSpaffordZach DeputyKyle Hollingsworth BandElohimProtohypeBukuThe Nth PowerSouthern AvenueGreat PeacockCustard PieEcologyThe GetbyeAnd More To Be Announced!
[Audio: Todd Moore][Photo: Sam Watson] On Friday night, Greensky Bluegrass kicked off their two-night run at The Fillmore Detroit with a fiery first show despite the generally shitty and snowy weather that’s overtaken the Midwest. Appropriately, the progressive bluegrass five-piece opened the show with a “Worried About The Weather” sandwich, which contained the Grateful Dead’s “China Cat Sunflower” (which also contained nods to its classic partner, “I Know You Rider”, and saw the band joined by Guido Batista and a gorilla mask-clad Luke Milanese) and “Burn Them” off 2014’s If Sorrows Swim. Without pause, the group took “Worried About The Weather” into a take on “Miss September” before landing in a final rendition of “Burn Them” to close out the non-stop six-song opening sprint. After “In Control” and “Can’t Stop Now”, the group ended out the first set on a high note by inviting out Mike Lynch for the group’s covers of the traditional gospel tune “I’m Working On A Building” and Bob Marley’s “Could You Be Loved”.Keeping up the vibe from the first set’s Bob Marley set closer, Greensky Bluegrass returned for set two with an opening reggae jam of “For Sure, Uh Huh”. This song marked a major highlight of the night given the hilarious banter during the tune. After Paul Hoffman laid out the first Chewbacca call of the tune—elicitting Anders Beck to note, “It’s like Chewbacca playing the trumpet?”—Anders, after quipping with Paul to “shut the hell up”, asked the audience which member of the band they thought had the best Chewbacca impression (spoiler: it was the band’s banjo player, Michael Arlen Bont, and it was amazing). From there, the band embarked on their high-energy second set, which featured a combination of “All Four” into “The Four” and takes on the group’s relatively new cover of Cris Jacobs’ “Bone Digger” off 2016’s Dust To Gold as well as The Stanley Brothers’ “Pig In A Pen”. The group closed set-two with a stellar rendition of Norton Buffalo’s “Ain’t No Bread In The Breadbox” (largely made famous by Jerry Garcia Band), which featured teases of Prince’s “1999” and the classic “Somewhere Over The Rainbow”.Setlist: Greensky Bluegrass | The Fillmore | Detroit, MI | 2/9/2018Set One: Worried About the Weather > China Cat Sunflower > Burn Them > Miss September > Burn Them, In Control, Can’t Stop Now, Working on a Building* > Could You Be Love*Set Two: For Sure Uh Huh > All Four > The Four > Help Me Hang On, Bone Digger, Better Off, Reverend > Pig in a Pen, Ain’t No Bread in the BreadboxEncore: Tied Down*w/ Mike Lynch
The Mayor of North Charleston, SC, got in front of some cameras to sing the praises of the city’s new Riverfront Park event space on Monday. R. Keith Summey, who has served as Mayor of North Charleston since 1995, cited a number of successes associated with the park during the promotional video, including the inaugural Trondossa Festival that brought Widespread Panic to the venue for two nights earlier this month.According to Summey, the new Riverfront Park has benefited the community in a lot of ways. One particularly interesting benefit he mentioned is that marijuana smoke at Widespread Panic concerts dissipates into the air more easily than it did when the band performed at the indoor North Charleston Coliseum. Also, it turns out the mayor likes Widespread Panic’s music a lot more than he previously realized.Here’s the full quote:My wife coerced me this past weekend to go see Widespread Panic. I’m 71 years old. Widespread Panic has come to this town a number of times at the Coliseum, but this was the first time they’ve been in an open-air area, and it worked a heck of a lot better. I think some of the things people were puffing on may have dissipated into the air a little bit better. But I actually found out I enjoyed their music. And all these times I’ve missed them when they’ve been here, but of course, she made me stay until it was over and the fireworks went off. I’m hen-pecked and I admit it.And here’s the video (the good stuff comes around 4:08):[Video: City of North Charleston]It’s great to see that Mayor Summey has such kind words for Widespread Panic. It’s also great that he gets such a kick out of the things people puff at their shows. On the other hand, it’s not so great that the South Carolina has some of the strictest marijuana laws in the country, so maybe Mayor Summey can lend his endorsement to the comprehensive medical marijuana bill that is being debated in the state’s legislature. After all, legalizing it works a heck of a lot better.You can check out our review and photos from the inaugural Trondossa Festival, which also featured sets from Sturgill Simpson, Margo Price, Big Something, Moon Taxi, and Hiss Golden Messenger, here.[H/T – PanicStream]
Today, Athens, Georgia road warriors Widespread Panic officially announced the details for the 2019 edition of Panic En La Playa, their annual beachside destination event. The 8th installation of Panic En La Playa will take place January 25th through 29th, 2019, at the Hard Rock Hotel in Riviera Maya, Mexico.As always, Panic En La Playa will feature four full Widespread Panic shows. The late-night schedule for the Cloud 9 Adventures-produced event includes sets by North Mississippi Allstars and Bonerama in addition to two performance by the Playa Allstars—this year comprised of Eric Krasno, George Porter Jr., Ivan Neville, Cyril Neville, Terrence Higgins, Cheme Gastelum, Mark Mullins, and Leslie Mendelson. Bloodkin will also perform a pair of sunset shows, in addition to one by Kalu and the Electric Joint.The event allows fans to enjoy some of their favorite artists in a tropical setting without ever pulling out their wallets, as all drinks, food, concerts, and activities/excursions are included in the ticket price. Those who have attended Panic En La Playa in past years will get the first crack at tickets for the 2019 event when loyalty pre-sale begins on Wednesday, June 27th. Public on-sale opens at 12 pm (ET) the following day, Thursday, June 28th. For more information on Panic En La Playa Ocho, head to the event website.
Texas-native trio Khruangbin has announced their debut performance at The Capitol Theatre in Port Chester, NY, set to go down on Wednesday, June 19th, 2019.Known for their laid-back, instrumental brand of world music, Khruangbin has slowly built up a fervent fanbase over the past six years. The group released its debut album, The Universe Smiles Upon You, in 2015 to much critical acclaim, and followed that up with Con Todo El Mundo, released in January 2018.Laura Lee, Mark Speer, and Donald “DJ” Johnson shared their excitement for their upcoming debut at The Cap via their Facebook. They explain,PORT CHESTER, NY! We’ve heard so much about you and we’re coming to get down at The Capitol Theatre. Khruangbin is set to appear at Coachella this weekend, followed by stops at Pomona, CA’s Fox Theater (4/18); Berkeley, CA’s Greek Theatre in support of Ghosts of the Forest (4/20); and Fort Worth, TX’s Fortress Festival (4/28).Tickets for Khruangbin’s show at The Capitol Theatre go on this Friday, April 19th, at 12 p.m. (EST) here.For a full list of Khruangbin’s upcoming tour dates and ticketing information, head to the band’s website.
Reduce. Reuse. Recycle. We hear this mantra time and again. When it comes to carbon — the “Most Wanted” element in terms of climate change — nature has got reuse and recycle covered. However, it’s up to us to reduce. Scientists at Harvard Medical School are trying to meet this challenge by learning more about the carbon cycle, that is, the process by which carbon moves from the atmosphere into plants, oceans, soils, the Earth’s crust, and back into the atmosphere again.One of the biggest movers and shakers is the lowly cyanobacteria, an ocean-dwelling, one-celled organism. Pamela Silver, HMS professor of systems biology, and colleagues have uncovered details about how this bacteria fixes, or digests, carbon. These bacteria build miniature factories insidethemselves that turn carbon into fuel.Silver and her colleagues report online in the journal Science that the bacteria organize these factories spatially, revealing a structural sophistication not often seen in single-celled organisms. This regular and predictable spacing improves the efficiency of carbon processing. In the future, an understanding of the mechanisms that govern this spatial organization may help improve the efficiency of designer bacteria engineered to produce carbon-neutral fuels such as biodiesel and hydrogen.The rod-shaped cyanobacteria are among the most abundant organisms on earth. Forty percent of the carbon in the carbon cycle is reused and recycled through these tiny creatures. To process carbon, cyanobacteria build soccer-ball-shaped structures inside themselves called carboxysomes. These tiny factories absorb carbon dioxide and convert it into sugar, which the bacteria then use to produce energy.“The ocean is just packed with these bacteria. By studying them, we’re understanding more about how the earth works,” said Silver, who is also on the faculty of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at HMS. “I’m blown away by what’s happening in the ocean and what we don’tunderstand about it. There are a lot of things in the ocean that are going to be useful to us.”The research team, led by co-first authors, research fellows David Savage and Bruno Afonso, attached a fluorescent tag to proteins involved in building the carboxysome, then grew the tagged bacteria under a microscope.The resulting images revealed that, instead of being randomly numbered and haphazardly placed, cyanobacteria build carboxysomes in numbers that scale with their size, and they space the factories evenly along their length.The finding adds evidence for new ways to think about bacteria. “We had this idea of bacteria as a bag of enzymes, but that has been completely shattered,” said Afonso.A single protein, called parA, acts as a kind of inner-bacterium stage manager, arranging the carboxysomes in a neat, single-file row, the researchers found. When they disabled the bacteria’s ability to make the protein, the carboxysomes were distributed far more randomly.The cyanobacteria lacking parA were also less “fit” for survival, said Savage. While wild-type bacteria cells have a consistent number of carboxysomes, which in turn optimizes carbon processing and fitness, the knockout bacterium created daughter cells whose numbers of carboxysomes ranged from none to an excess. The daughter cells with few or no carboxysomes divide more slowly and also process fifty percent less carbon than daughter cells at the other end of the spectrum. (see video 1)By tagging parA in wild-type bacteria, they discovered interesting dynamics in the protein. Thousands of parA proteins repeatedly cluster together and shoot quickly from one end of the bacterium to the other.“It’s amazing that you can generate this regularity and symmetry potentially from a single protein,” said Savage. “It’s amazing that it is somehow tuned by the dynamics of the protein.” The researchers have not yet identified the exact mechanism parA uses to govern the spacing.Many other bacteria also have the parA protein, which is known for separating chromosomes during cell division. “This work highlights how bacteria cobble together spare parts to achieve similar goals such as organization and segregation,” said David Rudner, HMS assistant professor of microbiology and molecular genetics, who was not involved in the study.These findings may help synthetic biologists one day create designer bacteria.“Knowledge about how cells create and deploy specialized factories like the carboxysome opens the way to creating other kinds of mini factories that could perform useful functions,” said Richard Losick, Harvard University professor of molecular and cellular biology, who was not involved in the study.Silver’s lab is looking into whether the carboxysome might be useful for optimizing the production of hydrogen by engineered bacteria. One challenge in designing hydrogen-producing bacteria is that the enzymes that produce hydrogen are sensitive to oxygen. The carboxysome may help solve thisproblem because its outer shell blocks out oxygen, protecting the enzymes inside from its toxic effects.This research was funded by the US Army Research Office.
The Harvard Corporation has adopted a University-wide faculty financial conflict of interest policy, the first time such a policy has been crafted to cover faculty members across the entire campus. Drafted by a faculty committee chaired by Vice Provost David Korn, it is intended to serve as a framework within which each of the Schools will tailor rules to the specific circumstances of their faculties. It is expected that every School will produce a set of policies that is at least as stringent as those in the guidelines set out in the University policy, and that some will be even more stringent. HarvardScience sat down with Provost Steven E. Hyman and Vice Provost Korn to discuss the way the new University-wide policy was developed, and the impact it is expected to have. Why was it necessary, at this specific moment in time, to draft a University-wide conflict of interest policy?Hyman:Harvard is increasingly committed to research that might lead to products that will improve the lot of humankind. In our society, products make it out of the lab and into the world — where they can create benefit — through a process of commercialization. So some Harvard faculty are being encouraged to commercialize their research or otherwise engage with the private sector, in addition to writing papers for publication in notable journals.At the same time we are encouraging this kind of collaboration with private industry, it’s also important that we address our rules governing financial conflicts of interest. It’s very important to note that we’re living in a period of history when the news media, the general public, and members of Congress and government agencies are very concerned that potential financial conflicts might interfere with the kind of objective exploration and reporting of science that is at the very heart of the academic enterprise.Korn: The University is not designed to be an ivory tower isolated from the world. So the trick is to be able to have a robust system for affording faculty opportunities to engage with the commercial world and at the same time not threaten in any way their own fundamental integrity or that of Harvard.HarvardScience:But these guidelines apply to far more than just work in the sciences, don’t they? Aren’t they meant to guide the formation of policies at Schools as diverse as the Divinity School, the School of Education, the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Harvard Medical School?Hyman:They are. And it’s very important to realize that while most commercialization used to occur only in a small number of departments and a minority of Schools, increasingly we see more and more collaboration across departmental and School boundaries. For example, we see connections between engineering and chemistry in FAS [Faculty of Arts and Sciences] and the Medical School, or between diverse parts of the University and the School of Public Health, where again faculty may be engaged in private sector collaborations or commercialization. Policymakers outside the University and our own governing bodies — that is the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers — encouraged us to develop a set of policies that could apply to the whole University, rather than creating artificial boundaries with nothing but separate policies. And then David and the committee came up with the really inspired idea that while we should be governed by a shared set of principles, given the different cultures of the diverse faculties at our University, with different kinds of engagement with the private sector, implementation should be a matter that is School-specific, with the proviso that School basic implementations can’t deviate from the spirit or the letter of the University policy.Korn:The frontiers of much scholarship, especially in the sciences — basic and applied, behavioral and natural — are increasingly multidisciplinary because the problems now on the table are so large and complicated; teams of individuals from multiple disciplines have to come together with their various resources to make these huge projects tractable. And it simply isn’t feasible to have a team in any walk of life, whether it’s research or whether it’s basketball or football, where the team members play under different rules and behavioral expectations. It just doesn’t work. It’s certainly true that many of the Schools in the University had in their own faculty policy publications some mention of conflicts of interest. But in many instances they were neither concordant nor robust, so building a policy that would enable the Schools to become more harmonized in the ways they deal with these matters was a driving goal of the committee that we formed to wrestle with this issue.HarvardScience:So we now have an overarching University-wide policy that sets the parameters for the development of individual School policies. And the Medical School has completed a revision of its existing policy, creating conflict of interest standards that in many areas exceed the University guidelines. What about the other Schools — is there a set time by which they must create policies?Hyman:We haven’t set a time limit yet. In the early fall, David and I will sit down and take the necessary steps toward creating School-based implementations of the policy. I think it’s critical that David and his colleagues [on what will be a standing committee on conflict of interest] provide technical assistance, because for some of the Schools, this is a very new set of ideas. For Schools that are already engaged in science, engineering, and quantitative social science, these are not new issues. We’ve already begun a series of discussions with the deans of Arts and Sciences, Medicine, Engineering, and Public Health about School-based implementations. And those deans, well aware of the extraordinary degree of collaboration that occurs among the faculty their Schools, have pledged themselves to creating implementations that are as like to each other as possible, and in particular, having identical implementations with respect to human subjects research or clinical research, so that faculty don’t face what might be called bureaucratic double jeopardy when they engage in collaborative projects.Korn:It’s important to realize that the cultures and practices and historic interactions within the Harvard community vary enormously across the Schools. For example, the Business School exists to create leadership in the business community. And to do that requires the inculcation of values and skills necessary to achieve that objective, requires that there be much more interaction between students and faculty with business entities, than say might be necessary or considered normal in a philosophy department, or an arts department. Similar interactions are often necessary in the School of Education, and in the Design School. And yet the ways in which these different disciplines and professions practice these interactions also vary, as does the culture of what is considered appropriate and what isn’t. And none of that means that one is right and one is wrong. It’s just that the rules of a medical school would be entirely inappropriate in many respects for a law school or school of education. That’s why flexibility in how the policy is implemented is incredibly important in a University with such diverse areas of scholarship and professional education. It’s virtually impossible to get a one-size-fits-all policy that isn’t strained and artificial and unnecessarily burdensome.HarvardScience:Dr. Korn, as a graduate of the College and Harvard Medical School, you were familiar with much that is unique about Harvard. But you’d been away for decades, at Stanford, where you were chair of the Department of Pathology, and then dean of the School of Medicine, and then at the Association of American Medical Colleges, where you were a vice president. Given that time away, what surprised you the most when you returned here to take on this task?Korn:The unique feature, which I knew about but hadn’t thought about for a very, very long time, is the remarkable decentralization of the University. That in a lot of ways creates an interesting challenge for any form of central guidance or leadership, no matter what it is. The Schools have historically been very independent, and they have thrived in their independence. And the idea of coming together to develop University-wide policies is not common. So when Steve and I put the committee together to take on this task, we agreed we’d have representation from every School. We weighted the committee a bit with three members from FAS, acknowledging the three divisions, and three members from the Medical School — including hospital-based professors who are highly regarded as leaders of the academic medical community. Every other School had a single member. When the committee met initially I asked each member to introduce him or herself, and asked that they speak about conflict of interest matters that they were aware of in their own areas that bothered them. That led to an incredible amount of enthusiastic participation. The second thing we did was to get the members to define the goals, missions, and values of Harvard University. That wasn’t part of our charge, but I decided to ask the committee members to articulate what they thought were the missions and values of the University. The reason that was important was that from that point forward, the entire discussion of financial conflicts of interest and how to manage them was driven by the shared agreement, that these missions and values were core and had to be protected from any sort of undermining or tarnishing. And it was that shared agreement on what it is we’re trying to protect that really drove the process, I thought, very, very nicely to the endpoint late last fall. Everybody joined in the melee: They all contributed and they all signed off in the end. I thought the process worked extraordinarily well.HarvardScience:Is this the first time in Harvard history that there’s been such a collaborative project by representatives of all the Schools?Hyman:I can’t speak to Harvard history, but certainly in my time here we’ve never had a process that involved so many iterations among all of the deans, a committee representing faculty from the entire University, our governing bodies. And what’s remarkable, and here I refer back to something that David said, which is very important for many parts of the University: This was very new, but everybody understood it was very consequential and very important that we get it right, that we not stifle innovation and connection to the private sector, but that we create a set of policies that were clear and that would make sure that our values didn’t become transgressed in those interactions. So clearly, he had a stiff challenge.There were times hearing David’s reports and in talking to the deans when I was worried that there was too large a gulf between the Schools that support science and engineering and the rest of the University. And I was quite pleased to see everybody come together so quickly and produce such an effective document. Of course, the work isn’t done yet. We still need these implementations. But I have a lot of confidence that we’ll get there, partlybecause David and his colleagues on what will be a standing successor committee are committed to making this work.HarvardScience:So, the next step is forming a new standing committee on financial conflicts of interest, which will aid the Schools in the development of their policies and will ultimately have to approve those policies. Then what?Korn:The University Standing Committee on Financial Conflicts of Interest will be the formal instrument for overseeing the implementation plans of the various Schools. It will be available for consultation with the Schools. It will have to approve the implementation plans of each School. And it will be the body that will receive the audit reports that the policy also calls for. Harvard’s Risk Management and Audit Services is to audit each School at least once every three years to obtain insight and evidence of how well the Schools are employing the policy. And the audit reports will be given to me and shared with the committee so that the committee gains insight into how the Schools are complying, or where there may be problems that need some help, or where some aspect of the policy may simply not be working out as well as it sounded in concept, in which case we might propose some modifications to the President and Provost.Faculty members in each School will file both annual and transactional reports. Transactional reports will be filed for specific things, such as gifts or contracts or such, in which the faculty member or their immediate family has what the School regards as a significant financial relationship with the donor or sponsor that might be seen as creating a conflict of interest. The Schools are given a fair amount of discretion in how they’re going to implement this requirement, and among those discretions will be deciding what kinds and magnitudes of financial relationships their faculty might have that the Schools need to know about.Hyman:One really important thing that David is touching on is that the policy will call for disclosure of relevant potential conflicts of interest to the dean of a School. This does not imply that these disclosures will be made public, and I think that’s something that has been misunderstood. Now in medicine, there are both federal laws affecting drug companies and state laws that will lead to some disclosures being made public. It is important to note that it has become part of our culture to expect that if a physician wants to consult with a pharmaceutical company, that consultation will become a matter of public record with the view, shared by many, that some patients will want to know whether their doctor is engaged with or getting compensation from a pharmaceutical or medical device company. But as a matter of University policy, a Law School faculty member, for example, or a Design School faculty member making a disclosure to the dean will not have these disclosures made available to the public.HarvardScience:Isn’t this process of internal review much like the Institutional Review Board process for research involving human subjects, a process in which there is a careful, detailed review, but that review is confidential?Korn:I think, in a way, that’s a fair analogy. The process won’t be identical, but it will require a similarly careful, fact-driven balancing of risks and benefits, and then making decisions about whether and how to allow the research to go forward — or not.