Reduce. Reuse. Recycle. We hear this mantra time and again. When it comes to carbon — the “Most Wanted” element in terms of climate change — nature has got reuse and recycle covered. However, it’s up to us to reduce. Scientists at Harvard Medical School are trying to meet this challenge by learning more about the carbon cycle, that is, the process by which carbon moves from the atmosphere into plants, oceans, soils, the Earth’s crust, and back into the atmosphere again.One of the biggest movers and shakers is the lowly cyanobacteria, an ocean-dwelling, one-celled organism. Pamela Silver, HMS professor of systems biology, and colleagues have uncovered details about how this bacteria fixes, or digests, carbon. These bacteria build miniature factories insidethemselves that turn carbon into fuel.Silver and her colleagues report online in the journal Science that the bacteria organize these factories spatially, revealing a structural sophistication not often seen in single-celled organisms. This regular and predictable spacing improves the efficiency of carbon processing. In the future, an understanding of the mechanisms that govern this spatial organization may help improve the efficiency of designer bacteria engineered to produce carbon-neutral fuels such as biodiesel and hydrogen.The rod-shaped cyanobacteria are among the most abundant organisms on earth. Forty percent of the carbon in the carbon cycle is reused and recycled through these tiny creatures. To process carbon, cyanobacteria build soccer-ball-shaped structures inside themselves called carboxysomes. These tiny factories absorb carbon dioxide and convert it into sugar, which the bacteria then use to produce energy.“The ocean is just packed with these bacteria. By studying them, we’re understanding more about how the earth works,” said Silver, who is also on the faculty of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at HMS. “I’m blown away by what’s happening in the ocean and what we don’tunderstand about it. There are a lot of things in the ocean that are going to be useful to us.”The research team, led by co-first authors, research fellows David Savage and Bruno Afonso, attached a fluorescent tag to proteins involved in building the carboxysome, then grew the tagged bacteria under a microscope.The resulting images revealed that, instead of being randomly numbered and haphazardly placed, cyanobacteria build carboxysomes in numbers that scale with their size, and they space the factories evenly along their length.The finding adds evidence for new ways to think about bacteria. “We had this idea of bacteria as a bag of enzymes, but that has been completely shattered,” said Afonso.A single protein, called parA, acts as a kind of inner-bacterium stage manager, arranging the carboxysomes in a neat, single-file row, the researchers found. When they disabled the bacteria’s ability to make the protein, the carboxysomes were distributed far more randomly.The cyanobacteria lacking parA were also less “fit” for survival, said Savage. While wild-type bacteria cells have a consistent number of carboxysomes, which in turn optimizes carbon processing and fitness, the knockout bacterium created daughter cells whose numbers of carboxysomes ranged from none to an excess. The daughter cells with few or no carboxysomes divide more slowly and also process fifty percent less carbon than daughter cells at the other end of the spectrum. (see video 1)By tagging parA in wild-type bacteria, they discovered interesting dynamics in the protein. Thousands of parA proteins repeatedly cluster together and shoot quickly from one end of the bacterium to the other.“It’s amazing that you can generate this regularity and symmetry potentially from a single protein,” said Savage. “It’s amazing that it is somehow tuned by the dynamics of the protein.” The researchers have not yet identified the exact mechanism parA uses to govern the spacing.Many other bacteria also have the parA protein, which is known for separating chromosomes during cell division. “This work highlights how bacteria cobble together spare parts to achieve similar goals such as organization and segregation,” said David Rudner, HMS assistant professor of microbiology and molecular genetics, who was not involved in the study.These findings may help synthetic biologists one day create designer bacteria.“Knowledge about how cells create and deploy specialized factories like the carboxysome opens the way to creating other kinds of mini factories that could perform useful functions,” said Richard Losick, Harvard University professor of molecular and cellular biology, who was not involved in the study.Silver’s lab is looking into whether the carboxysome might be useful for optimizing the production of hydrogen by engineered bacteria. One challenge in designing hydrogen-producing bacteria is that the enzymes that produce hydrogen are sensitive to oxygen. The carboxysome may help solve thisproblem because its outer shell blocks out oxygen, protecting the enzymes inside from its toxic effects.This research was funded by the US Army Research Office.
WASHINGTON (AP) — President Joe Biden is threatening new sanctions on Myanmar after its military staged a coup and arrested the civilian leaders of its government, including Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi. Biden assailed the country’s army for the coup, calling it a “direct assault on the country’s transition to democracy and rule of law.” Myanmar has been a Western democracy promotion project for decades and had been a symbol of some success. But over the past several years, there have been growing concerns about its backsliding into authoritarianism. Disappointment with Suu Kyi has run high, especially over her resistance to reining in repression of Rohingya Muslims.
Lawrenceburg, In. — The Indiana Department of Transportation will close eastbound U.S. 50 in Lawrenceburg between 8 p.m. and 7 a.m. from Monday, August 14 to Friday, August 18. The closure is required while crews unload and set beams for the Tanner’s Creek bridge project.The mile-long closure will be patrolled by police.Officials say four concrete bridge beams will be set each night, depending on weather and river levels.The $6 million project is scheduled to be complete by Thanksgiving.
By Larry Lowrey Jr.SALINA, Kan. (June 27) – Mike Petersilie became the fourth different Belleville Motorsports IMCA Modified feature winner this season at Salina Speedway, Friday on Stand Packer Night.Brandon Blochlinger took the lead early on the feature and looked to be in command for his first win of 2014 at Salina Speedway while a host of drivers sliced and diced behind him. One of those drivers was Petersilie, who had started ninth and quickly found himself working to the front of the field. He made his move into the lead with two laps left. Blochlinger held on for second, Clay Sellard came in third spot, fourth was Jesse Richter and Joe Clevland raced from 12th starting to fifth. Aaron McBride held off Tommy Fose for the Budweiser IMCA Hobby Stock win, his first this season at Salina.Nate Ginest was impressive as he started in the 7th spot and worked his way to the front and won the M&H Motors IMCA Northern SportMod main event going away.
Batesville, In. — The annual “Soups & Sips” will be held Sunday, January 27 at the Batesville Knight of Columbus from 1 to 4 p.m. Tickets are $20 and can be purchased at Lisa’s Sew & Tux or email firstname.lastname@example.org.The event includes a wine glass to paint, soups, breads, desserts, Chinese & silent auctions, a wine pull and split the pot drawing.All proceeds will go to help local cancer patients, cancer research and local charities. This 21-years-old and over event.
Statewide—Deer season is quickly approaching. There are several license options available:* Deer bundle license – If you hunt in more than one season, this is the license deal for you.A deer bundle license can be used in all seasons (except the deer reduction zone season) using legal equipment during that season and gives the hunter the privilege to harvest up to three deer (3 antlerless OR 1 antlered and 2 antlerless deer).Season dates, legal equipment, and all other deer hunting laws apply. Antlerless deer taken with a deer license bundle can count toward the archery season bag limit, muzzleloader season bag limit, or as a bonus antlerless deer in that county, depending on the season and equipment used.* Youth hunt/trap combo license – Resident youth must purchase a youth combo license, which includes deer hunting privileges.* Crossbow license – A crossbow license is required to use a crossbow during archery season.* Archery license – The archery license allows longbows, recurve bows, or compound bows to be used during archery season.* Firearms license – The firearms license can only be used for a buck during the firearms season.* Muzzleloader license – This license can only be used in the muzzleloader season. Licenses can be purchased online, at a retailer, or over the phone at 317-232-4200.Remember, to get a discounted bonus antlerless license, you must first purchase a bonus antlerless license at the regular price. Purchasing a deer firearms license or deer bundle license does not qualify towards the discount.
Osgood, IN—Southeastern REMC experienced a power outage this morning related to the storm that rolled through the area. The outage affecting 1,184 members in Logan, Harrison, and Miller Townships. Crews were able to get the power restored quickly and safely with the outage only lasting roughly 45 minutes.
Press Association QPR owner Tony Fernandes wants Harry Redknapp to remain in charge at Loftus Road if the club are relegated. Rangers’ Barclays Premier League future is looking bleak ahead of Sunday’s clash with Wigan as they sit seven points adrift of safety with only seven matches remaining. Speculation will shroud Redknapp’s position should they slip into the npower Championship, but Fernandes told London Call-In: “I want stability more than anything. I wanted it with Neil Warnock and Mark Hughes, so it’s third time lucky with Harry. I think he is the man.” He went on: “We understand each other well and he knows how committed the shareholders are. “He has a great coaching staff and philosophy – he’s a fantastic man and I would love to keep him as long as he wants to stay.” Fernandes has confirmed there will be departures from Rangers regardless of what happens over the coming seven games. “We will have to sit down with Harry and discuss who we want to keep and who would go,” he said. “Obviously there will be players that will go regardless of if we stay up or go down. We want players who can give a lot to the club for a long time. “I do see players going, but we do have the nucleus of a good squad now which we have had to rebuild. “Every single player who has left QPR has not stayed in the Premier League and I think that shows how much rebuilding we had to do.”
Baker was an integral part of Bill Nicholson’s 1961 squad, which became the first team since Aston Villa in 1896-97 to win both the league title and FA Cup in the same season. After helping Spurs retain the FA Cup the following season and then win the 1963 European Cup Winners’ Cup, Baker left White Hart Lane in the summer of 1965 when he emigrated to Durban in South Africa. Press Association Peter Baker, a member of Tottenham’s 1961 double-winning side, has died at the age of 84, the Barclays Premier League club announced on Wednesday. A statement on the official club website read: “It is with great sadness that we announce the death of our former Double-winning right-back Peter Baker who passed away following illness earlier this morning. He was 84.” Right-back Baker was born in Hampstead, north London and joined Spurs in June 1949 and went on to make 342 appearances.
Sheriff Judd calls TJ Wiggins “pure evil in the flesh.” He has 230 previous felony charges with 15 convictions while his alleged accomplices have no rap sheet.Sheriff Judd said that TJ Wiggins was in possession of an arsenal of weapons, as a convicted felon. He lawyered up.Mary says she bought the ammunition and Sheriff Judd says there’s video to prove it. She lawyered up.The three friends were slain just moments after gathering at remote boat ramp at Lake Streety in Frostproof.Judd, who has worked at the agency since 1972 called the murder scene “horrific,” describing the deaths as a “massacre.” He said the victims, identified as Damion Tillman, 23; Keven Springfield, 30; and Brandon Rollins, 27, were beaten and shot. Judd says the motive was an alleged stolen truck.Investigators have pieced together what they believed happened, Judd said while adding that Tillman and TJ Wiggins appear to have had a conversation at a store before the incident took place.Judd added the trio of suspects drove to an undisclosed location where they stripped down the gun, took it apart, and threw it away before going to a nearby fast food restaurant to eat. Polk County Sheriff Grady Judd announced the arrest of three suspects in connection with the murder of three friends during a fishing trip on Friday. Grady says they arrested Tony “TJ” Wiggins, 26, his girlfriend Mary Whittemore, 27, and Tony’s brother “Robert” Wiggins. 21, in relation to the murders.Grady Judd WigginsSheriff Judd is updating the media on the arrests of these 3 suspects in the July 17th triple homicide in #Frostproof: 26 yo Tony “TJ” Wiggins; 27 yo Mary Whittemore; and 21 yo William “Robert” Wiggins. We are live on Facebook https://t.co/rKNE28jFQl. Release to follow pic.twitter.com/1XxFHe2kFQ— Polk County Sheriff (@PolkCoSheriff) July 22, 2020